Optimization of parameters of the plasma generation and charge confinement in perspective

electro-dynamical generators of electricity

hat does not require high external magnetic field, and high temperature of the working gas

Analytical model and numerical

simulation of

discharge plasma generation

and charge confinement

**Action 3.** Physical model of plasma generation in nano-gas. Nano-gas (gas laden with nanoparticles) seems to be very promising for the plasma generations and its usage for generating electricity by oscillating plasma. Unfortunately, to the best of our knowledge, a theory of this phenomenon is practically absent (also electrical discharge is used for the metallic nano-particles preparation). Therefore, the physical modeling of the plasma generation in nano-gases becomes an important step toward new scientific underpinning of the perspective electrodynamic generators of electricity. In developing the model, we will concentrate on nanoparticles with large dielectric constant or even metallic nano-particles. In this case the shape of the nano-particles can be of principal importance. Elongated nano-particles can reduce the discharge voltage and simultaneously may serve as a heavy charge carrier instead of positive ions.

**Action 6.** Integrated model of the plasma generations and confinement. As partially explained above, optimizations of numerous parameters, partially listed in previous Actions, cannot be done independently. This is because the main goal is to maximize the resulting electrical efficiency Eel (% of the incoming heat flux, transformed to electrical power) together with the commercial validity of the electrical generation. And these two global parameters are results of non-trivial interplay of the parameters mention in previous Tasks that also has to be clarified. For example, the electrical parameters of the discharger strongly depend on the type of working media (pure gas, mixture of two gases, type, concentration, etc. of impurities and/or nanoparticles), while their choice depends on required (or possible) storage parameters, like plasma life and its density, that in its turn depends on optimal regimes of the production of electricity. Therefore, the required optimization of the global parameters is not a simple task facing a wide variety of physical, engineering and financial parameters that involved into the problem. For example, even the simplest straightforward approach includes the gas dynamic equations, Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields and generalized Ohm’s law. Even in this formulation the basic set of equations is too cumbersome for direct numerical calculations and requires significant simplification.

Multi-scale and Simulation Models

To reach this goal, in previous Tasks we have clarified basic physical mechanisms that determine (as a function of applied AC/HF or pulse voltage, resulting electric current, pressure and temperature of the basic gas) the rates of ionization, stripping, electron capture and excitation of atoms, ions and molecules; the ionization stability and life time of the positive and negative carriers; the glow-to-arc-transition; the rate of electron, atom, and ion collisions; the propagation of ionizing waves; profile of the electric field in the chamber; charge and neutral atoms density profiles; profiles of the ion and electron temperatures and other important characteristics, important for the electric generator applications. These developments is done in close collaboration with experimental group(s) which will be responsible for the experimental tests of the above mentioned properties and financial management personal, to estimate, for example, the cost of their production, potentially available markets for final products.

As a result, we will have by multi-scale theoretical and numerical simulation models that starts on the atomic scale level, going to macro-scale via set of intermediate scale models. These models will be formulated, interconnected and integrated by using model based tool and languages such XML, UML and SysML. Finally, we describe resulting plasma parameters in the continuous media approximation using also relevant homogenization techniques like multiscale convergence, asymptotic expansion method, stochastic homogenization, etc. This will allow us to proceed to and to suggest perspective versions of the confinement apparatus that will be tested experimentally.

The final selection of the model architecture and its design that will be implemented in this Task. This allow us to:

(1) standardize of the model interface;

(2) utilize the model based design and their implementation;

(3) modeling of the systems with their different constituents;

(4) allow the interaction of the models in order to easy the overall the final system design.

Beyond the state of Art

Also the problem of the plasma generators by electrical discharge has a long history of investigation, its analytical studies was mainly concentrated either on small supercritical regime, or on small density range or both. Numerical studies definitely are very useful however they are restricted to a particular range of parameters that make difficult to clarify relative importance of different physical mechanisms in a wide parametric range. Experiments studies also provide very limited information on that issue. Moreover, these studies were mainly oriented on different from ours regions of applications, like electroluminescent lamps and plasma TV displays, dense plasma cleaning systems, etc. Therefore, suggested analytical and numerical integrated physical model of the electric discharge and plasma confinement, oriented on different application, will be of principal importance. Accounting for basic underlying physics of this phenomenon in the simplest possible (but not more) the model will study the problem of plasma generation and confinement in essentially different range of parameters and regimes, important for the perspective electrical generators.

Impact

Suggested analytical and numerical integrated physical model that accounts for the main underlaying physical processes of the electrical discharge and plasma confinement should be considered as an important step towards new scientific underpinning of the perspective electrochemical generators of electricity, allowing to optimize their parameters and to increase the resulting electric efficiency at reasonable production costs.